Archive for the 'oracle' Category

Accurately Interpreting Real Application Clusters IOPS with Automatic Workload Repository. So Easy to Get So Wrong.

This blog post has been necessary for quite some time but I just now finally got around to posting it. What I’m going to blog about is a common problem I run into in my dealings with Oracle Database Administrators (DBAs). It’s about IOPS data in Automatic Workload Repository (AWR) reports. Please don’t roll your eyes. Not everyone gets this right. I’ll explain…

I cannot count how many times I’ve had DBAs cite some IOPS number from their workload only to later receive an AWR report from them that shows a mere fraction of what they think their IOPS load is. This happens very frequently!

I’m going to explain why this happens and then show how to stop getting confused about the data.

At issue is the AWR report generated by awrgrpt.sql which is a RAC AWR report. DBAs will run this script, generate a report, open it and scroll down to the System Statistics – Per Second section so they can see “Physical Reads/s”. That’s where the problem starts. That doesn’t mean it’s the DBAs fault, per se. Instead, I blame Oracle for using the column heading “Physical Reads/s” because, well, that’s 100% erroneous.

A Case Study

To make this topic easier to understand, I set up a small SLOB test. The SLOB driver script ( produces both the RAC (awrgrpt.sql) and non-RAC (awrrpti) AWR reports. First, I’ll describe why SLOB can make this so easy to understand.

The following screenshot shows the slob.conf I used. You’ll notice that I loaded a “scan table” of 1GB for each schema. Not shown is the fact that I loaded 64 schemas.

For this type of testing I used the SLOB “batch” approach as opposed to a fixed-time test.  As Figure 1 shows, I set the WORK_LOOP parameter to 10, which establishes that each of the sessions will perform 10 iterations of the “work loop”–a “batch” of work as it were. To make the SLOB test perform nothing but table scans, I set SCAN_PCT to 100 and UPDATE_PCT to 0.

Figure 1: SLOB Configuration File.

The script produces both the RAC and non-RAC flavor of AWR report in compressed HTML format. The files are called awr.html.gz awr_rac.html.gz.

The RAC report differs from the non-RAC AWR report in both obvious and nonobvious ways. Obviously, a RAC report includes per-instance statistics for multiple instances, however, the RAC report also includes categories of statistics not seen in the non-RAC report. It is, in fact, one of the classes of statistics–only present in the RAC AWR report–that causes the confusion for so many DBAs.

Understandable Confusion – Words Matter!

Figure 2 shows a snippet of the RAC AWR report generated during the SLOB test. The screenshot shows the crux of the matter. To check on IOPS, many DBAs open the RAC AWR report and scroll to the Global Activity Load Profile where the per-second system statistics section supposedly reports physical reads per second. I’m not even going to spend a moment of your time to split the hairs that need splitting in this situation because the rest of the RAC report clarifies the erroneous column heading.

Simply put, the simple explanation for this simple problem is that Oracle simply chose an incorrect–if not simply over-simplified–column heading in this section of the RAC AWR report.

Logical and Physical I/O

Figure 2 shows the erroneous column heading. In this section of the RAC AWR report, both logical I/O and physical I/O are reported. In this context, all logical I/O in Oracle are single-block operations. What’s being reported in this section is that there were 68,115 logical reads per second of which 64,077 required a fetch from storage as the result of a cache miss. If Oracle suffers a miss on a logical I/O (which is an operation to find a cached, single block in SGA block buffer pool), the resultant action is to get that block from storage. Whether the missed block is “picked up” in a multi-block read or a single-block read is not germane in this section of the report. That said, I still think the column heading is very poorly worded. It should be “Blocks Read/s”.


Figure 2: RAC AWR Report. Global Activity Load Profile.

What are IOPS? Operations! IOPS are Operations!

That heading made me think of Charlton Heston swinging off the back of a garbage truck yelling, “It’s Operations, IOPS is Operations”. Some may get the Soylent Green reference. Enough of my feeble attempt at humor.

The acronym IOPS stands for I/O operations per second. The word operations is critical. An I/O operation in, Oracle database, is a system call to transfer data to or from storage. Further down in the RAC AWR is the IOStat by Function section which uses a term that maps precisely to IOPS–requests.  Another good term for an I/O operation is a request–a request of the operating system to transfer data–be it a read or a write. An operation–or a request–to transfer data comes in widely varying shapes and sizes. Figure 3 shows that the SLOB test described above actually performed approximately 8,000 requests–or, operations–per second from storage in the read path.

I’ll reiterate that. This workload performed 8,000 IOPS.

That’s a far cry less than suggested in Figure 2.

Figure 3: RAC AWR Report. IOStat by Function.

Further down in the RAC AWR report, is the Global Activity Statistics section. This section appears in both the RAC and non-RAC reports. Figure 4 shows a snippet of the Global Activity Statistics section from the RAC report generated during the SLOB. Here again we see the unfortunate misnomer of the statistic that actually represents the number of blocks retrieved from storage. Figure 4 shows the same 64,000 “physical reads” seen in Figure 2, however, there are adjacent statistics in the report to help make information out of this data. Figure 4 ties it all together. The workload performed some 8,000 read requests from storage. What was read from storage? Well, 64,000 blocks per second where physically read from storage.

Let’s Go Shopping

I have a grocery-shopping analogy in mind. Think of a requests as each time you transfer an item from the shelf to your cart. Some items are simple, single items like a bottle of water and others are multiple items in a package such as a pallet of bottled water. In this analogy, the pallet of bottled water is a multi-block read and the single bottle is, unsurprisingly, a single-block read. The physical reads statistic is the total number of water bottles–not items–placed into the cart. The number of item’s placed in the cart per second was 8,000 by way of plopping something into the cart 8,000 times per second. I hope the cart is huge.

Figure 4: Global Activity Statistics. RAC AWR Report.

As mentioned earlier in this post, the RAC AWR report is really just a multi-instance report. In this case I generated a multi-instance report that happened to capture a workload from a single-instance. That being the case, I can also read the non-RAC AWR report because it too covers the entire workload. If everyone, always, read the non-RAC AWR report there would never be any confusion about the difference between reads and payload (read requests and blocks read)–at least not since Oracle Database

Starting in the final patchset release of 11g (, the Load Profile section (which does not appear in the RAC AWR report) clearly spells out the situation with the “Physical read” misnomer. Figure 5 shows the Load Profile in the non-RAC report generated by the SLOB test. Here we can see that late in 11g there were critical, parenthesized, words added to the output. What was once reported only as “Physical reads” became “Physical read(blocks)” and the word requests was added to help DBAs determine both IOPS (requests per second are IOPS) and the payload, Again, we can clearly see that the test had an I/O workload that consisted of 8,000 requests per second for 64,000 blocks per second for a read throughput of 500MB/s.


Figure 5: Non-RAC AWR. Load Profile Section. Simple and Understandable I/O Statistics.

Wrapping It All Up

I hope a few readers make it to this point in the post because there is a spoiler alert. Below you’ll find links to the actual AWR reports generated by the SLOB test. Before you read them I feel compelled to throw this spoiler alert out there:

I set db_file_multiblock_read_count to 8 with the default Oracle Database block size.

That means processes were issuing 64KB read requests to the operating system.

With that spoiler alert I’m sure most readers are seeing a light come on. The test consists of 64 sessions performing 64KB reads. The reports tell us there are 8,000 requests per second (IOPS) and 64,077 blocks read per second for a read throughput of 500MB/s.

500MB / 8,000 == 64KB.


Links to the AWR reports:

Click the following link and githup will give you a ZIPed copy of these AWR reports:



No /proc/diskstats Does Not Track **Your** Physical I/O Requests

You have applications that scan disk using large sequential reads so you take a peek at /proc/diskstats (field #4 on modern Linux distributions) before and after your test in order to tally up the number of reads your application performed. That’s ok. That’s also a good way to get erroneous data.

Your application makes calls for I/O transfers of a particular size. The device drivers for your storage might not be able to accommodate your transfer request in a single DMA and will therefore “chop it up” into multiple transfers. This is quite common with Fibre Channel device drivers where, for example, I/O requests larger than, say, 256KB get rendered into multiple 256KB transfers in the kernel.

This is not a new phenomenon. However, folks may not naturally expect how stats in /proc/diskstats reflect this phenomenon.

The following screen shot shows a simple shell script I wrote to illustrate the point I’m making. The script is very simple. As the screen shot shows, the script will execute a single dd(1) command with direct I/O for 1,000 reads of sizes varying from 4KB to 1024KB.


First, I executed the script by pointing it to a file in an XFS file system on an NVMe drive. As the next screenshot shows, diskstats accurately tallied the application reads until the I/O sizes were larger than 256KB. We can see that the device is only taking DMA requests of up to 256KB. When the script was conducting 512KB and 1024KB I/O requests the count of reads doubled and quadrupled, respectively, as per /proc/diskstats.

I’m sure readers are wondering if the file system (XFS) might be muddying the water. It is not. The following screen shot shows scanning the device directly and the resultant diskstats data remained the same as it was when I scanned a file on that device.



This was not meant to be a life-changing blog post. The main point I’m sharing is that it’s important to not confuse your I/O requests with the I/O requests of the kernel. You can scan with whatever read size you’d like. However, the kernel has to abide by the transfer size limit announced by the device driver. To that end, you have your reads and the kernel has its reads. Just remember that /proc/diskstats is tracking the kernel’s read requests–not yours.

SLOB Chewed Up All My File System Space and Spit It Out. But, Why?

This is a quick blog post in response to a recent interaction with a SLOB user. The user reached out to me to lament that all her file system space was consumed as the result of a SLOB execution ( I reminded her that will alert to possible derelict mpstat/iostat/vmstat processes from an aborted SLOB test. If these processes exist they will be spooling their output to unlinked files.

The following screen shot shows what to expect if a SLOB test detects potential “deadwood” processes. If you see this sort of output from, it’s best to investigate whether in fact they remain from an aborted test or whether there are other users on the system that left these processes behind.


The next screenshot shows how to take action on the output:


If SLOB is consuming all your file system space, it’s probably already telling you why–all you need to do is take action. I hope this is helpful for some wayward Googler someday.

Sneak Preview of pgio (The SLOB Method for PostgreSQL) Part IV: How To Reduce The Amount of Memory In The Linux Page Cache For Testing Purposes.

I hope these sneak peeks are of interest…

PostgreSQL and Buffered I/O

PostgreSQL uses buffered I/O. If you want to test your storage subsystem capabilities with database physical I/O you have to get the OS page cache “out of the way”–unless you want to load really large test data sets.

Although pgio (the SLOB Method for PostgreSQL) is still in Beta, I’d like to show this example of the tool I provide for users to make a really large RAM system into an effectively smaller RAM system.

Linux Huge Pages

Memory allocated to huge pages is completely cordoned off unless a process allocates some IPC shared memory (shmget(1)).  The pgio kit comes with a simple tools called which leverages this quality of huge pages in order to draw down available memory so that one can test physical I/O with a database size that is quite smaller than the amount of physical memory in the database host.

The following picture shows an example of using to draw set aside 443 gigabytes of available memory so as to leave only 32 gigabytes for OS page cache. As such, one can test a pgio database of, say, 64 gigabytes and generate a tremendous about of physical I/O.




I should think this little tool could be helpful for a lot of testing purposes beyond pgio.

Sneak Preview of pgio (The SLOB Method for PostgreSQL) Part III: Link To The Full README file for Beta pgio v0.9.

If you are interested in a head start on pgio, the following is a link to the full README file which has some loading and testing how-to:

The pgio text README file version 0.9 Beta

Sneak Preview of pgio (The SLOB Method for PostgreSQL) Part II: Bulk Data Loading.

Bulk Data Loading With pgio Version 0.9 Beta

Now that pgio (the SLOB Method for PostgreSQL) is in Beta users’ hands I’m going to make a few quick blog entries with examples of pgio usage. The following are screen grabs taken while loading 1 terabyte into the pgio schemas. As the example shows, pgio (on a system with ample storage performance) can ready a 1 terabyte data set for testing in only 1014 seconds (roughly 3.5TB/h loading rate).

$ cat pgio.conf



$ echo ”
> RUN_TIME=120
> DBNAME=pg10
> CREATE_BASE_TABLE=TRUE ” > pgio.conf
$ sh ./

Job info: Loading 16G scale into 64 schemas as per pgio.conf->NUM_SCHEMAS.
Batching info: Loading 16 schemas per batch as per pgio.conf->NUM_THREADS.
Base table loading time: 23 seconds.
Waiting for batch. Global schema count: 16. Elapsed: 0 seconds.
Waiting for batch. Global schema count: 31. Elapsed: 243 seconds.
Waiting for batch. Global schema count: 46. Elapsed: 475 seconds.
Waiting for batch. Global schema count: 61. Elapsed: 697 seconds.
Waiting for batch. Global schema count: 64. Elapsed: 935 seconds.

Group data loading phase complete. Elapsed: 1014 seconds.
$ psql pg10
psql (10.0)
Type “help” for help.

pg10=# \d+
List of relations
Schema | Name | Type | Owner | Size | Description
public | pgio1 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio10 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio11 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio12 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio13 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio14 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio15 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio16 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio17 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio18 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio19 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio2 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio20 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio21 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio22 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio23 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio24 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio25 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio26 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio27 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio28 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio29 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio3 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio30 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio31 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio32 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio33 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio34 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio35 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio36 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio37 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio38 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio39 | table | postgres | 16 GB |
public | pgio4 | table | postgres | 16 GB |

Sneak Preview of pgio (The SLOB Method for PostgreSQL) Part I: The Beta pgio README File.

The pgio kit is the only authorized port of the SLOB Method for PostgreSQL. I’ve been handing out Beta kits to some folks already but I thought I’d get some blog posts underway in anticipation of users’ interest.

The following is part of the README.txt for pgio v0.9 (Beta). SLOB users will find it all easy to understand. This is the section of the README that discusses pgio.conf parameters:


The percentage of SQL that will be UPDATE DML

RUN_TIME run duration in seconds


pgio data is loaded into either a big single schema or multiple. NUM_SCHEMAS directs to create and load NUM_SCHEMAS schemas.


For  This parameter controls the number of concurrent
data loading streams.

For  This parameter controls how many sessions will attach to
each NUM_SCHEMAS schema.

For example, if NUM_SCHEMAS is set to 32 and NUM_THREADS is set
to 8, will load data into 32 schemas in batches of
8 concurrent data loading streams. On the other hand, if set to the
same 32 and 8 respectively for NUM_SCHEMAS and NUM_THREADS then will run 8 sessions accessing each of the 32 schemas for a
total of 256 sessions.


Controls the bounds of the BETWEEN clause for each  SELECT statement as it executes. For example, if set to 255 each SELECT will visit 255 random blocks. Smaller values require more SQL executions to drive the same IOPS.


The UPDATE DML corollary for WORK_UNIT. This allows for a mixed SELECT/UPDATE workload where SELECT statements can visit more blocks than UPDATES.


The amount of data to load into each schema. Values can be N as a number of 8KB blocks or N modified with [MG] for megabytes or gigabytes. For example, if set to 1024 will load 8MB  ( 1024 * 8192 bytes) into each schema whereas set to 1024M will load  1024 megabytes into each schema.


The PostgreSQL database that holds the pgio objects


This parameter is passed to the psql command. The pgio kit expects that .pgpass and all other authentication is configured. For example, if CONNECT_STRING is set to “pg10” then the following command must succeed in your pgio environment:

$ psql pg10


The loader,, creates a dense “seed” table as the source from  which to load the test tables. This seed table persists after exits. If this parameter is set to true the seed table will not be regenerated.






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All content is © Kevin Closson and "Kevin Closson's Blog: Platforms, Databases, and Storage", 2006-2015. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Kevin Closson and Kevin Closson's Blog: Platforms, Databases, and Storage with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

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