Archive for the 'shared nothing architecture' Category

Real Application Clusters: The Shared Database Architecture for Loosely-Coupled Clusters

The typical Real Application Clusters (RAC) deployment is a true enigma. Sometimes I just scratch my head because I don’t get it. I’ve got this to say, if you think Shared Nothing Architecture is the way to go, then deploy it. But this is an Oracle blog, so let’s talk about RAC.

RAC is a shared disk architecture, just like DB2 on IBM mainframes. It is a great architecture, one that I agree with as is manifested by my working for shared data clustering companies all these years. Again, since this is an Oracle blog I think arguments about shared disk versus shared nothing are irrelevant.

Dissociative Identity Disorder
The reason I’m blogging this topic is because in my opinion the typical RAC deployment exhibits the characteristics of a person suffering from Dissociative Identity Disorder. Mind you, I’m discussing the architecture of the deployment, not the people that did the deployment. That is, we spend tremendous amounts of money for shared disk database architecture and then throw it into a completely shared nothing cluster. How much sense does that make? What areas of operations does that paradigm affect? Why does Oracle promote shared disk database deployments on shared-nothing clusters? What is the cause of this Dissociative Identity Disorder? The answer: the lack of a general purpose shared disk filesystem that is suited to Oracle database I/O that works on all Unix derivations and Linux. But wait, what about NFS?

Shared “Everything Else”
I can’t figure out any other way to label the principle I’m discussing so I’ll just call it “Shared Everything Else”. However, the term Shared Everything Else (SEE for short) insinuates that there is less importance in that particular content—an insinuation that could not be further from the truth. What do I mean? Well, consider the Oracle database software itself. How do you suppose an Oracle RAC (shared disk architecture) database can exist without having the product installed somewhere.

The product install directory for the database is called Oracle Home. Oracle has supported the concept of a shared Oracle Home since the initial release of RAC—even with Oracle9i. Yes, Metalink note 240963.1 describes the requirement for Oracle9i to have context dependent symbolic links (CDSL), but that was Oracle9i. Oracle10g requires no context dependent symbolic links. Oracle Universal Installer will install a functional shared Oracle Home without a any such requirements.

What if you don’t share a software install? It is very easy to have botched or mismatched product installs—which doesn’t sit well with a shared disk database. In a recent post on the oracle-l list, sent the following call for help:

We are trying to install a 2-node RAC with ASM (Oracle 10.2.0.2.0 on Solaris 10) and getting the error below when using dbca to create the database.The error occurs when dbca is done creating the DB (100%).Any suggestions?

We have tried starting atlprd2 instance manually and get the error below regarding an issue with spfile which is on ASM.

ORA-01565: error in identifying file ‘+SYS_DG/atlprd/spfileatlprd.ora’
ORA-17503: ksfdopn:2 Failed to open file +SYS_DG/atlprd/spfileatlprd.ora
ORA-03113: end-of-file on communication channel

OK, for those who are not Oracle-minded, this sort of deployment is what I call the Dissociative Identity Disorder since the database will be deployed on a bunch of LUNs provisioned, masked and accessed as RAW disk from the OS side—ASM is a collection of RAW disks. This is clearly not a SEE deployment.The original poster followed up with a status of the investigatory work he had to do to try and get around this problem:

[…] we have checked permissions and they are the same.We also checked and the same disk groups are mounted in both ASM instances

also.We have also tried shutting everything down (including reboot of both servers) and starting everything from scratch (nodeapps, asm, listeners, instances), but the second node won’t start.Keep getting the same error […]

What a joy. Deploying a shared disk database in a shared nothing cluster! There he was on each server checking file permissions (I just counted, there are 20,514 files in one of my Oracle10g Oracle Homes), investigating the RAW disk aspects of ASM, rebooting servers and so on. Good thing this is only a 2 node cluster. What if it was an 8 node cluster? What if he had 10 different clusters?

As usual, the oracle-l support channel comes through. Another list participant posted the following:

Seem to be a known issue (Metalink Note 390591.1). We encountered similar issue in Linux RAC cluster and has been resoled by following this note.

The cause was included in his post (emphasis added by me):

Cause

Installing the 10.2.0.2 patchset in a RAC installation on any Unix platform does not correctly update the libknlopt.a file on all nodes. The local node where the installer is run does update libknlopt.a but remote nodes do not get the updated file. This can lead to dumps or internal errors on the remote nodes if Oracle is subsequently relinked.

That was the good and bad, now the ugly—his post continues with the following excerpt from the Oracle Metalink note:

There are two solutions for this problem:

1) Manual copy of the “libknlopt.a” library to the offending nodes:

-ensure all instances are shut down
-manually copy $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib/libknlopt.a from the local node to all remote nodes

-relink Oracle on all nodes :
make -f ins_rdbms.mk ioracle

2) Install the patchset on every node using the “-local” option:

What’s So Bad About Shared Nothing Clusters?
I’m not going to get into that, but one of the central knock-offs Oracle uses against shared-nothing database architecture is the fact that replication is required. Since the software used to access RAC needs to be kept in lock-step, replication is required there as well, and as we see from this oracle-l email thread, replication is not all that simple with a complex software deployment like the Oracle database product. But speaking of complex, the Oracle database software pales in comparison to the Oracle E-Business Suite. How in the world do people manage to deploy E-Biz on anything other than a huge central server? Shared Applications Tier.

Shared Applications Tier
Yes, just like Oracle Home, the huge, complex Oracle E-Business Suite can be installed in a shared fashion as well. It is called a Shared Applications Tier. One of the other blogs I read has been discussing this topic as well, but this is not just a blogosphere topic—it is mainline. Perhaps the best resource for Shared Applications Tier is Metalink note 243880.1, but Metalink notes 384248.1 and 233428.1 should not be overlooked. The long story short is that Oracle supports SEE, but they don’t promote it for who-knows-what-reason.

Is SEE Just About Product Installs?
Absolutely not. Consider intrinsic RAC functionality that doesn’t function at all without a shared filesystem:

  • External Tables with Parallel Query Option
  • UTIL_FILE
  • BFILE

I’m sure there are others (perhaps compiled PL/SQL), but who cares. The product is expensive and if you are using shared disk architecture you should be able to use all the features of shared disk architecture. However, without a shared filesystem, External Tables and the other features listed are not cluster-ready. That is, you can use External Tables, UTIL_FILE and BFILE—but only from one node. Isn’t RAC about multi-node scalability?

So Why the Rant?
The Oracle Universal Installer will install a fully functional Oracle10g shared Oracle Home to simplify things, the complex E-Business Suite software is architected for shared install and there are intrinsic database features that require shared data outside of the database so why deploy a shared database architecture product on a platform that only shares the database? You are going to have to explain it to me like I’m six years old; because I know I’m not going to understand. Oh, yes, and don’t forget that with a shared-nothing platform, all the day to day stuff like imp/exp, SQL*Loader, compressed archive redo, logging, trace, scripts, spool and so on mean you have to pick a server and go. How symmetric is that? Not as symmetric as the software for which you bought the cluster (RAC), that’s for certain.

Shared Oracle Home is a Single Point of Failure
And so is the SYSTEM tablespace in a RAC database, so what is the point?People who choose to deploy RAC on a platform that doesn’t support shared Oracle Home often say this. Yes a single shared Oracle Home is a single point of failure, but like I said, so is the SYSTEM tablespace in every RAC database out there. Shops that espouse shared software provisioning (e.g., shared Oracle Home) are not dolts, so the off-the-cuff single point of failure red herring is just that. When we say shared Oracle Home, do we mean a single shared Oracle Home? Well, not necessarily. If you have, say, a 4 or 8 node RAC cluster, why assume that SEE or not to SEE is a binary choice? It is perfectly reasonable to have 8 nodes share something like 2 Oracle Homes. That is a significant condensing factor and appeases the folks that concentrate on the possible single point of failure aspect of a shared Oracle Home (whilst often ignoring the SYSTEM tablespace single point of failure). A total availability solution requires Data Guard in my opinion, and Data Guard is really good, solid technology.

Choices
All told, NFS is the only filesystem that can be used across all Unix (and Linux) platforms for SEE. However, not all NFS offerings are suffiently scalable and resilient for SEE. This is why there is a significant technology trend towards clustered storage (e.g., NetApp OnTAP GX, PolyServe(HP) EFS Clustered Gateway, etc).

Finally, does anyone think I’m proposing some sort of mix-match NFS here with a little SAN there sort of ordeal? Well, no, I’m not. Pick a total solution and go with it…either NFS or SAN, the choice is yours, but pick a total platform solution that has shared data to complement the database architecture you’ve chosen. RAC and SEE!


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I work for Amazon Web Services. The opinions I share in this blog are my own. I'm *not* communicating as a spokesperson for Amazon. In other words, I work at Amazon, but this is my own opinion.

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All content is © Kevin Closson and "Kevin Closson's Blog: Platforms, Databases, and Storage", 2006-2015. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Kevin Closson and Kevin Closson's Blog: Platforms, Databases, and Storage with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

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